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Everything posted by Shirogane

  1. From the Sunken Ships list on April 16th 1945 I would delete the unit: USS Bryant and USS Harding did not sink. MV Goya was the transport ship HMCS Esquimalt probably did not appear on the list because it was smaller than the Flower class corvettes and was minesweepers.
  2. To the list sunk on 14 April 1945 I would add: CD-31 - The Type C escort ship was torpedoed and sunk in Hiyo Inlet, Saishu Island, by USS Tirante. Sank in shallow water and only partially submerged. Thirty-nine crewmen were killed. Nomi - The Mikura-class escort ship was torpedoed and sunk in Hiyo Inlet, Saishu Island, by USS Tirante. Sank in shallow water and only partially submerged. One hundred and thirty-four crewmen were killed including her captain.
  3. Sunken ships April 9th 1940 HNoMS A-2 - The A-class submarine was attacked by R-22 and R-23 (both Kriegsmarine) in the Oslofjord off Tønsberg, Norway and was damaged beyond repair. HNoMS Æger - Operation Weserübung: The Sleipner-class destroyer was bombed and sunk off Stavanger, Norway by Luftwaffe aircraft with the loss of eight of her 75 crew. Blücher - Battle of Drøbak Sound: The Admiral Hipper-class cruiser was sunk in Oslofjord, Norway by Norwegian coastal artillery and shore-based torpedoes with the loss of around 1,000 of her 1,382 crew. HNoMS Eidsvold - First battle of Narvik: The Eidsvold-class coastal defence ship was torpedoed off Narvik, Norway by Z21 Wilhelm Heidkamp and sunk with the loss of 175 of her 181 crew. HMS Gurkha - Operation Weserübung: The Tribal-class destroyer was bombed and sunk in the North Sea south east of Bergen, Norway by Heinkel He 111 aircraft of KG26 and Junkers Ju 88 aircraft of KG30, Luftwaffe with the loss of 15 of her 219 crew. Karlsruhe - Operation Weserübung: The Königsberg-class cruiser was torpedoed in the Skagerrak near Kristiansand, Norway HMS Truant and severely damaged. She was subsequently scuttled by Greif . HNoMS Norge - First Battle of Narvik: The Eidsvold-class coastal defence ship was torpedoed and sunk off Narvik by Z11 Bernd von Arnim with the loss of 101 of her 191 crew. HNoMS Tor - Operation Weserübung: The Sleipner-class destroyer was scuttled off Fredrikstad, Norway to avoid capture by German forces. She was salvaged by the Germans, repaired and entered service as Tiger. She survived the war and was taken back into Royal Norwegian Navy service as Tor in 1945. 1942 HMS Hermes - Operation C: The Hermes class aircraft carrier was sunk in the Indian Ocean east of Ceylon by Japanese D3A1 dive bombers from Hiryu, Shokaku, and Zuikaku all with the loss of 307 crew. HMS Hollyhock - Operation C: The Flower-class corvette was bombed and sunk in the Indian Ocean east of Ceylon by Japanese aircraft while rescuing survivors of Athelstane . She sank in 30 to 45 seconds. 49 crewmen killed. Survivors rescued by Athelstane's lifeboats. HMS Lance -The L-class destroyer was bombed and sunk at Malta. She was declared a constructive total loss. refloated and towed to the U.K. for scrapping 1944. HMAS Vampire - Operation C: The V-class destroyer was sunk in the Indian Ocean east of Ceylon by Japanese aircraft with the loss of nine crew. 1943 Isonami -The Fubuki-class destroyer was torpedoed and sunk in the Banda Sea 35 nautical miles (65 km) south east of Wangi-wangi Island, Netherlands East Indies by USS Tautog with the loss of seven of her 219 crew. 1944 U-515 - The Type IXC submarine was depth charged and damaged in the Atlantic Ocean by USS Chatelain, USS Flaherty, USS Pillsbury and USS Pope . She surfaced, and was then bombed, shelled and sunk by the four destroyers and by Grumman TBF Avenger and Grumman F4F Wildcat aircraft based on USS Guadalcanal with the loss of sixteen of her 60 crew. 1945 Admiral Scheer - The Deutschland-class cruiser was sunk in a Royal Air Force air raid on Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein. Ro-56 - The Kaichū VI type submarine was depth charged and sunk off Okinodaito-Jima, Ryukyu, by USS Mertz and USS Monssen . Lost with all 79 hands. U-677 - The Type VIIC submarine was destroyed at Hamburg in a British air raid. U-747 - The Type VIIC submarine was badly damaged by bombs at Hamburg in an American air raid. She was scuttled on 3 May 1945. U-804 - The Type IXC/40 submarine was sunk in the Kattegat off Gothenburg, Sweden by de Havilland Mosquito aircraft of 143 Squadron and 235 Squadron, Royal Air Force with the loss of all 55 crew. U-843 - The Type IXC/40 submarine was sunk in the Kattegat west of Gothenburg by a rocket attack by de Havilland Mosquito aircraft of 235 Squadron, Royal Air Force with the loss of 44 of her 56 crew. U-982 - The Type VIIC submarine was bombed and destroyed at Hamburg in a Royal Air Force air raid. U-1065 - The Type VIIC/41 submarine was sunk in the Skaggerak by a rocket attack by de Havilland Mosquito aircraft of 143 and 235 Squadrons, Royal Air Force with the loss of all 45 crew. U-2509 - The Type XXI submarine was bombed and sunk at Hamburg in a Royal Air Force air raid. U-2514 - The Type XXI submarine was bombed and sunk at Hamburg in a Royal Air Force air raid. U-2516 - The Type XXI submarine was sunk at Kiel in a British air raid. U-2550 - The Type XXI submarine was bombed and sunk at Hamburg in a Royal Air Force air raid. U-3512 - The Type XXI submarine was bombed and sunk at Kiel in a British air raid.
  4. Good initiative. To the list sunk on 7 April I would add: I-2 - 1944 The Type J1 submarine. Sunken ships April 8th 1940 HMS Glowworm - Operation Weserübung: The G-class destroyer was shelled and sunk in the Norwegian Sea north west of Trondheim, Norway while ramming the heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper Kriegsmarine with the loss of 115 of her 149 crew. 1941 Vincenzo Giordano Orsini - The Giuseppe Sirtori-class destroyer was scuttled at Massawa 1942 ShCh-421 - The Shchuka-class submarine was damaged by a mine, scuttled by K-22 the next day. No casualties. 1943 U-733 - The Type VIIC submarine collided with a Kriegsmarine patrol boat and sank at Gotenhafen. She was raised, repaired and returned to service in December 1943. 1944 U-2 - The Type IIA submarine collided with the trawler Helmi Söhle in the Baltic Sea near Pillau, East Prussia and sank with the loss of seventeen of her 35 crew. U-962 - The Type VIIC submarine was depth charged and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean north west of Cape Finisterre, Spain by HMS Crane and HMS Cygnet with the loss of all 50 crew. 1945 U-774 - The Type VIIC submarine was depth charged and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean north west of Ireland by HMS Bentinck and HMS Calder with the loss of all 44 crew. U-1001 - The Type VIIC/41 submarine was depth charged and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean south west of Land's End, Cornwall, United Kingdom by HMS Byron and HMS Fitzroy with the loss of all 46 crew. Wilhelm Bauer - The submarine tender was bombed and sunk by Allied aircraft.
  5. Maybe it's better to leave it as it is. If the game VB is supposed to offer some challenges to the players. The fact that Poland is problematic in the game. I've been thinking. It would have been absurd if VB game had started on December 7, 1941 for the United States or UK
  6. Mission Impossible, but it will probably be done
  7. Polish navy in the war with Soviet Russia 17.09 - 05.10.1939. Forgotten fleet. Crime in the town of Mokrany - Polish Sailor Katyn According to the operational plan of the "East" River Flotilla Polish Navy in Pińsk should have played an important role in suppressing possible Soviet aggression in the eastern provinces of the Second Republic of Poland. However, in 1939 the plans changed. Polish navy flotilla was the second largest river flotilla in Europe after the Soviet Union. The beginning of the legendary flotilla The Polish River Flotilla was founded on 19 April 1919. At that time, the command of the Polish Army organized three naval patrol boats on Pripyat. He participated in battles with the Bolshevik fleet at Horodisk in July 1919. Later, the Polish Army units with the participation of the battleships made a successful landing, which forced the Reds to withdraw from Łunińc. In March 1920, the fleets took part in the fighting at Mozyr and in the Kiev offensive, where Chernobyl successfully attacked the Red Army subdivisions and won the naval battle (Yes. Under this Chernobyl, where in 1986 there was a nuclear power plant crash). However, after the Bolsheviks started an offensive to the West and occupied the inter-region of the Pripyat, Polish sailors were forced to sink their ships and retreat. The rebirth of the Pinsk Flotilla started after the signing of the Riga Treaty. In 1922 Pinsk became the main base of the flotilla. In the city was built War Port Command, barracks, warehouses and hangars. Defend eastern voivodeships The Polish General Staff planned that in the event of a war with the eastern neighbor the river flotilla should participate in a maneuver defense organization. In this case, Polish ships would have to not only resist the Soviet Flotilla Dnieper, but also to cover their infantry by providing artillery support and to land troops in the most vulnerable areas of the breach. It was also the responsibility of the Pinsk flotilla to protect crossings and the protection of river ships. However, the Polish strategists did not take into account the fact that with the adversary in the air (in September 1939 Soviet aviation completely dominated the sky over the north-eastern provinces) the effectiveness of the Polish fleet fell significantly. It was assumed that, in the case of the war, Poles in present-day Western Belarus will have about 50 combat ships and 2200 personnel in the state of Western Poland, comparable to the reinforced infantry regiment or medium armored unit. According to the "East" operational plan, 1st squadron reinforced by gunboats should occupy the most remote sections of the border. The 2nd squadron, together with the landing and technical subdivisions, occupied positions at the mouth of the Łan, Horyn and Prypec rivers. 3rd squadron remained in reserve. The flotilla staff was in Pinsk. In the 1930s, the main force of the Polish Navy Flotilla was 6 monitors armed with 100 mm guns and 75 mm guns, 3 cannon boats, 2 anti-aircraft guns and 2 patrol boats. In addition, 7 trawlers should have had minefields. Since 1927, commander of the Pińsk Flotilla was Commander, graduate of the Maritime Corps in St. Petersburg Witold Zajączkowski. Thanks to this outstanding officer has successfully upgraded the "Pinsk fleet". Preparing for the war The spring of 1939 was warm and wet. All this contributed to the increase in morbidity among sailors and officers of the Flotilla River in Pinsk. As a result, the Polish military authorities dispatched airplanes that sprayed insecticides against Malaria into the marshy areas. On March 24, 1939 200 new reservists arrived in the port of Pinsk. By virtue of the decision of the Polish Navy, all personal leave was canceled, and the sailors were ordered to take personal belongings to the ships. Constant combat readiness was introduced on all mine and chemical warships, in two liaison battalions and all port services. The ships were supplemented with drinking water supplies, provisions and combat equipment. On March 25, 1939 some of the ships (armored cutters and trawlers) were sent to the border with the USSR near the Pripyat River. Soon, however, the order was canceled. Poland was preparing for the war in the West, and the north-eastern provinces, among others. Poleskie, it was considered as backwards. At the same time, in April 1939, two groups of flotilla ships were shipped by rail (from Pinsk to Modlin) and by waterway (through the Royal Canal, Bug and Narew Canal) over the Vistula River. Later, some of the experienced naval artillerymen and armaments were also deployed to Gdynia and Helina. What caused shortages in the armaments and munitions of soldiers during the war for reservists. Several months before the outbreak of World War II, the Flotilla's command in Pińsk tried to improve its anti-aircraft defense, but due to the lack of necessary funds the plan was unsuccessful. On June 12-13, 1939 all three squadrons of the Pińsk Flotilla took part in exercises during which Polish sailors perfected the shooting for the purposes of the riverside. Before August 1939 this formation of the Polish Navy Flotilla's had 40 battleships and 50 auxiliary ships. Following the general mobilization, the Polish military authorities additionally requisitioned 10 civilian vessels. Polish armament consisted of 9 guns 100 mm, 14 guns 75 mm, 18 guns 37 mm guns, 6 - 13.2 mm machine guns, and about 90 - 7.92 mm machine guns. In addition, two 40 mm anti-aircraft guns Bofors, two high-caliber machine guns and six manual machine guns had an independent platoon who was supposed to protect the port of Pińsk. The 1st Squadron under the command of Captain Mieczysław Sierkuczewski was joined by the anti-aircraft gun ship ORP "General Sikorski", 2 monitors ORP "Kraków" and "Wilno", 3 gunboats, 5 armored cutters and 2 barges. The second squadron commanded by Lieutenant Stefan Kaminski was the anti-aircraft gun ship ORP "Hetman Chodkiewicz", 2 monitors ORP "Horodyszcze" and "Warszawa", 4 armored cutters, 1 barge. Commander of the 3rd Squadron was Captain Bronislaw Bończak. The group consisted of the commanding officer of ORP "General Szeptycki", 2 monitors ORP "Pińsk" and "Toruń" , 4 armored cutters, 2 switchgears barge. The mines and gas divisions under command of Captain Narcissus Maluszyński counted 1 ship and 7 trawlers. The fleet command had the ORP "Admiral Sierpinek" and the ORP "Generał Sosnkowski" sanitary ship. Reservists who came to the garrison's dislocation at the end of August 1939, took an accelerated course and moved on to the ships. In addition, the squadron was formed by the Marine Corps (2 battalions), which were intended to be used to divert ships from ships. On August 28, 1939, some of the ships near the Wolanskie Bridges moved closer to Pińsk. In the port began to create positions of anti-aircraft defense and dig trenches. The Second World War In the rear areas, the overwhelming part of Pinsk River Flotilla was unable to take part in the initial phase of the September campaign. Consequently, the main task of the sailor was to defend the eastern rim of the Second Polish Republic. In the case of the aggression of the Soviet Union (according to the earlier plan) Polish ships were to "close" the rivers and shield their artillery with the Polish infantry on land. For the implementation of this plan a fleet was formed in the fleet, whose primary task was to block the Pripyat estuary (with mines and artillery fire). In addition, the sailors were ordered to contact Polish soldiers from the battalions of the Korpusu Ochrony Pogranicza (KOP) "Dawidgródek" and "Sienkiewicz" Border Patrol Corps to stop the activities of Soviet diversion troops on bridges and crossings. On September 1, 1939, Germans attacked Poland. Polish sailors on duty on the eastern border were surprised when they saw that in the border area the Soviet authorities had flagged the white flag as a sign that the USSR was neutral (On the same day she started out in Soviet Russia mobilization Red Army}. However, a few days later, the flags disappeared and the border again became uneasy. In addition to the scheduled on-call duty, the Pinsk flotilla made maneuvers on Poleskie rivers. At the same time, the commanders of the ships were ordered to observe radio silence. On September 3, 1939, Witold Zajączkowski ordered the ships to report to the "Wolanskie Bridges" and Pińska. On September 8, the Luftwaffe aircraft attacked Polish ships for the first time. In response the sailors of the ship ORP "Hetman Chodkiewicz" shot down three enemy bombers. On 10 September, the commander of the KOP "Polesie" Brigade, Tadeusz Różycki-Kolodziejczyk, asked Zajączkowski to postpone the flotilla ships further from the Polish-Soviet border in order to avoid provocation. The tension in the eastern borders of the Second Republic of Poland grew and the border guards felt it. On the same day the Polish ships retreated about 5 km west of the border. On September 13, 1939, the sailors were given orders to take positions on Pina and the Royal Channel and to organize defense there. After two days General Francis Kleeberg took command of the flotilla. Defend the "Janów" subdivision (railway bridge over Pina) had two armored cutters armed with 40 mm guns. The "Horodyszcze" subway (near the bridge over Jasiołda) was planned to be protected with the ORP "Wilno" monitor, two cannon boats and two armored boats. On the duty on the Osobowicze directed a monitor ORP "Kraków", 1 gunboat and 2 armored cutters. The Wolski Bridges should have been defending the ORP"Warsaw" and "Horodyszcze " monitors, the ORP "Genrał Sikorski" anti-aircraft defense ship and the General Sosnkowski sanitary ship. The protection of the Łachwa-Dawidgródek route was entrusted to the ORP "Pińsk" and "Toruń" monitors. The "Sytnica" have an ORP "Admiral Sierpinek" and several motor boats. Two infantry battalions were preparing to defend west of Pinsk, artillery support was provided by ORP "General Szeptycki". Works on this ship, they shot the road berry. Motorboats of border patrols were also taken from the Polish-Soviet frontier. Due to the flow of the river, the monitor ORP "Wilno" was unable to reach the "Horodyszcze" river, and the two gunboats that followed him were diverted over the river to provide protection for the departure of the Polish units from Pinsk. To Polish warship "Osobowicze" reached late, but in full composition. There was no ORP "Warsaw" monitor. He hit the shallow and later sunk. Other ships from this group reached their designated destination and started protecting the crossing of rivers. War from the East On September 17, 1939, the Red Army crossed the Polish border. Polish military units located in the eastern territories of the Second Polish Republic were disoriented by the command of the Chief Commander, Marshal Edward Rydz-Śmigły "... with the Soviets do not fight." The Bolsheviks, on the other hand, divested their subordinates and killed Polish soldiers at the slightest attempt to resist. With the infantry, tanks and planes, the Polish-Soviet border was also crossed by the Red Army's Dnieper Army Red Army (6 river monitors, 8 cannon boats and armored trawlers, trawlers and supply ships). Information about the Soviet aggression reached Pins only at 11:00. The Pińsk Flotilla's staff tried to communicate with all of their ships immediately, but it was too late for the maneuver. In the absence of Marshal Rydz-Śmigała, General Kleeberg ordered Polish sailors to sink the ships and go ashore. Sailors who had been infantry at one point should have been concentrating south of the Wolanskie Bridges and being subordinated to the KOP" Polesie" Brigade Commander Colonel Tadeusz Różycki-Kolodziejczyk. They were given the uniform of the Polish Army infantry, which was in stock, while they were allowed to leave some elements of the uniform and the Navy emblems. On the same day, Pińsk's authorities began to requisition all the vehicles and horses that were in town. At 13:00 on September 17, 1939, Pinsk attacked planes with red stars on their wings. As a result, several residential houses on Brzeska Street were destroyed. Among the local population were killed and wounded. Several bombs exploded near the train station. Interestingly, a German bomber appeared a few hours ahead of the city, which, after the attack of Polish sailors, flew in the opposite direction. End of the ships Near the village of Nyrcza sunk the ORP "Pińsk" monitor, which previously settled there on the aground. In the evening on the same day went to ORP "Torun". His crew took two armored boats, but soon the ships were attacked by Soviet planes. Polish sailors with machine gun fire stopped this attack. Near the village of Stachowo both boats were sunk, and the sailors went to Kamienia Koszyrskiego. Upon receiving the order "... with the Soviets not to fight", the ORP "Admiral Sierpinek" sank. On September 18, 1939, near the village of Osobowice, the crew monitor ORP "Wilno"blew up. A part of Polish cannons should have moved closer to Pińsk and shielded the departure of Polish units. However, in the direction of the estuary of the Jasiołda river, the Polish ships sank in aground. One by one, all the ships of the Pińsk flotilla on the "Janów", "Wolanskie" bridges and others. Have been sunk. As the last one went down the monitor ORP "Krakow". On September 19, 1939, the ship headed for the Royal Canal in order to break through to Brześć, but due to the fact that the riverbed was blocking a blasted bridge, on September 21 the ship's commander decided to sink. From the fleet to the infantry On September 18, 1939, two naval battalions moved from Pinsk to the village of Moroczna Wielka. During the march, other salior joined the squad. On September 20, 1939, Pińsk left the command of the Pińsk Harbor and the personnel of the supply base. Polish units retreated to the "Wolanskie Bridges" subdivision. There were soldiers from the KOP battalions "Kleck", "Ludwikowo", "Sienkiewicz", in addition to the sailors of the Pińsk flotilla. On September 19, 1939, a battle broke out between the Red Army subdivisions, whose task was to obtain bridges, and Polish armored cruisers defending the crossing. At the end of September 20, 1939 tanks of the 29th Armored Brigade of the Red Army under the command of Siemiona Kriwoszeina broke into Pinsk. Polish sailors blew up the bridge over Pinsk along with Soviet armored cars and tanks, which attempted to chase the receding divisions of the Polish Army. City dwellers recalled that the damaged vehicles were still lying on the river for a long time. In the River Strumien near the village of Stytyczewo, the last cannon boats of the Pinsk Flotilla were sunk, and their crews moved towards Moroczna Wielka. By September 22, 1939, the main place of concentration of the flotilla was the Kamień Koszyrski. According to various data, 41 officers and 1422 non-commissioned officers and sailors were present. They were armed with 16 manual machine guns, 20 large caliber machine guns, 1431 rifles. General Kleeberg, who took command of all Polish units, allowed people from the eastern territories to return home. Only 50 soldiers took advantage of this opportunity. The other sailors and other units of the Polish Army went west to help the besieged Warsaw. Columns of Polish soldiers were attacked by Soviet aircraft all the time. Some raids lasted over an hour. September 23, after a few fights with Soviet saboteurs, sailors from Pinsk entered the village of Kaczyn in Volhynia. Here the sailors were paid for two months, and the remaining money (almost 820 000 PLN) was buried in a nearby forest. On September 25, about 300 reservists from subdivisions formed at the beginning of World War II joined the squadron of the Flotilla of Pinsk. On September 27, 1939 Punching pushed Bug. During the crossing they were attacked by tanks of the Soviet 29th Armored Brigade. As a result, 55 Polish sailors were killed. In Włodawa all the subdivisions of the Pilsen Flotilla were merged into the 3rd Battalion (Second Lieutenant Commander Stefan Kamiński) of the 182th Infantry Reserve Division of the 60th Infantry Division. Crime in the town of Mokrany In order to connect with the basic units of the Flotilla, a battalion of Marines (crew of 2nd and 3rd Squadrons) under the command of Captain Bronisław Bończak was also heading towards Włodawa. On September 23, the saliors and KOP soldiers walked towards Kamienia Koszyrskiego . Border guards marched ahead of the seamen by four kilometers and dusk arrived before dark, and decided to organize a stopover in one of the forests. On 25 September, the division split into two parts - one under Captain Bończak led to Brest, the other to Kowel. The next day in the village of Tur the first of the above. The groups were ambushed by the 2nd Battalion of the 32nd Armored Brigade of the Red Army. Captain Bończak tried to persuade the Soviet officers to let Polish sailors out of the Bug, but all these attempts failed. Surrounded by tanks Т-26 Polish soldiers decided to surrender. In the Małorycie officers and seafarers were separated - local Ukrainian nationalists with red sleeves on their sleeves persuaded officers to Mokran. On September 28, 1939, local activists shot here 18 officers and non-commissioned officers of the Flotilla River in Pinsk and the KOP. Last fight The naval infantry battalion in the vicinity of Puchowa Gora and Jabłona was set up in Włodawa to fight bloody Red Army units trying to encircle the Independent Operations Group "Polesie". As a result of the successful attack, the Pińsk seamen captured a considerable number of trophies and prisoners. On September 30, they participated in a fatal clash with the Soviet cavalry near Milan. 60 Red Army soldiers were taken captive, also captured 11 machineguns and one anti-tank gun. Between October 2 and 5, 1939, the sailors fought with German troops under Wolu Gułowska and Kock. After these battles, the formation of the Polish Army under the command of General Francis Kleeberg, and with it the infantry battalion, due to the lack of ammunition and weapons, was forced to surrender. This was the end of the September odyssey of the Polish Navy Flotilla in Pińsk. In spite of the difficult situation in which the sailors from Pińsk were located, in most cases they performed their duties with dignity. This tab for the history of the September 1939 campaign is also close to Belarus. Among the soldiers and sailors fighting under the command of Francis Kleeberg were many Belarussians, Ukrainians and white Russians. Postscript From 1944 to 1989, speech and writing about Polish Navy Flotilla in Pinsk was an element of taboos in Poland. Families of seafarers did not know what happened, with their relatives in the east and their families. Communist power in Poland tried to erase from the history of the events of September 17, 1939, for good relations, that the Soviet Union. A large part of Polish commanders, officers and sailors of the Pińsk fleet died at Katyn massacre. Families of sailor and sailor were transported to the gulags of the Soviet Union. Not many people added to 1941 and 1945. Jerzy Peterk, a specialist in the Polish fleet and author of numerous books. Polish writer-seaman, journalist and publicist. For nearly 5 years censorship did not allow the release of almost 100 pages book of Pińks sailors. The book was released in 1981 and was the first publication of this fleet. However, the censorship of all crimes and fights was prescribed to the Germans. It was only in 1990 that a monument was erected on the supposed grave site of the murdered Mokran in Belarus. To this day, the Russians deny themselves, helping Mokran's crimes. River flotillas documents were destroyed by Polish sailors before soviets so that they would not reach them in their hands. To this day, many of the matters and events of the Pinsky Fleet have not been resolved because there are no documents. Many of the Polish Navy's ships were raised from the bottom by the Russians and incorporated into the river fleet of the Soviet Union and fought on June 22, 1941.
  8. Kongo art The dress makes an amazing impression. I guess I know who I will vote in the next vote.
  9. Poles on the ships of the Royal Navy during World War II. Forgotten Polish sailors from the battleship HMS "Hood" and anecdote about how Poles from HMS "Rodney" wanted to boarding at the German battleship "Bismarck". After the defeat in 1939 Polish Navy she started to rebuild in France and England. From around the world began to stay many volunteers to serve ships Navy. Over time, powerful noted deficiencies in the officer corps and specialists. This was due, that many of them were captured by the Germans or Soviet Russia in 1939. (Many of them have been found in mass graves The Katyn massacre or released from the gulag in 1941) To increase the number of trained professionals in the Navy. Polish authorities and the command of the Polish Navy asked about the possibility of training Polish sailors on British ships. For answer I do not have to wait long, and from 1940 to 1945, could be met Polish sailors on destroyers, cruisers, battleships and... aircraft carriers. Generally known entities under which they served Polish sailors HMS "Broke", "Campbell", "Glowworm" (As part of the the internship before taking the destroyer of the same type "G". Disembarked just before the final voyage), HMCS "Restigouche", "Berwick", "Anson", "Howe", "Belfast", "London", "Hood", "Rodney", "King George V", "Suffolk", "Norfolk", "Queen Elizabeth" and "Formidable". Such a curiosity so happened that the action against the "Bismarck" Polish cadets were on HMS "Hood", " Rodney, " King George V "and" Suffolk "and" Norfolk". The Poles, who went to the bottom of the sea along with the battleship HMS 'Hood "23 May 1941 Warrant Officer Kazimierz Żurek Warrant Officer Leon Trzebiatowski-Zmuda Warrant Officer Kazimierz Szymalski Warrant Officer Stanisław Czerny Cześć ich pamięci! Anecdote about how Poles from HMS "Rodney" wanted to boarding at the German battleship "Bismarck" The historian Iain Ballantyne while searching for the book about the sinking of the battleship "Bismrack" in talks with surviving sailors who sank the German battleship and their families found a story that repeated only sailors from HMS 'Rodney' and their families on the Polish sailor being on the battleship . When it is clear that the German battleship no longer escape pursuit and was heavily bombarded. Polish sailors who viewed agonies "Bismarck" descended from the bridge of the ship and disappeared somewhere. Officers and sailors from HMS "Rodney" began to look for them. One of the officers checking the ship's kitchens. What he saw caused a small shock. Armed to the teeth with guns Polish sailors sharpening knives and meat choppers in the kitchen. When the officer asked them what their guns and knives kuchen. They answered that they want to ask for "Rodney" came as close to the German battleship then made by boarding at the "Bismarck". Because they did not like bombardment already defeated the enemy, and they wanted to take revenge for Polish sailors from HMS 'Hood' and 1939 in the Baltic Sea and want to talk to the captain. Captain of HMS 'Rodney' rejected the request of the Polish warrant, but he was proud of their attitude.
  10. A small war between sailors from the destroyer ORP Błyskawica on a portable gramophone. To raise the morale of the beginning of the war during the long cruises convoy and prevent the possibility that general fatigue on ships. Speakers marine broadcast crew for the music from the radio and portable gramophone. Thanks to the rich collection of records on gramophone airs various pieces of both Polish top songs, but also foreign music hits. During stops in sea bases was also letting go of the music through the speakers. However, the most among the crew had to take a portable gramophone which drove to the numerous disputes about who now has gramophone in that part of the ship. Gramophone belonged to the officer in charge for educational improvement in the morale of the crew and explain political issues. To borrow the crew to be able to take the pressure away in his spare time. But what is happened late nobody expected that the gramophone will lead to disputes and brawls between sailors about who will have it for the day. Sometimes people who borrowed gramophone specially played one and the same song 24h. Like they wanted to torture others or it was popular. One spring day when in port, the crew was free mission convoy of two sailors decided to borrow gramophone on its part of the unit from the officer. This led to quarrel that escalated into a fist fight because both of them wanted to have a gramophone on the evening to while away playing cards on other parts of the ship. Owner reserved if see another fight on the gramophone smash it on the floor. And that's how it happened. At the sight of sailors in front of the officer's cabin. The officer broke gramophone and gramophone records on the floor so that there was nothing to collect and repair was impossible. And so to the end of the war the crew listened to music from the speakers by radio , and the officer had peace and quiet and there was no fighting between the crew of the destroyer Błyskawica on the gramophone. Based on the book "Granatowa Załoga" Author: Wacław Cygan. Memories sailor from destroyers ORP "Błyskawica", ORP "Piorun" and the cruiser ORP "Dragon".
  11. Unforgivable mistake. About how the Allies sank Polish submarine. Depth charges, merciless series of machine guns and boundless stupidity. Five sailors were killed, sixteen wounded. Thus ended the fratricidal attack allied units at the Polish submarine. The incident, which history has forgotten. In early November 1941. Polish Navy took over at the US Navy base in New London submarine type "S". This unit, even though the renovation was completely exploited a long service in the US fleet. In the opinion of Polish sailors only plus "new" signings was a ... fridge. It was a novelty because it was not on the other submarines of the Polskiej Marynarki Wojennej. The commander of "Jastrząb" - is the name of the ship - was Capt. Boleslaw Romanowski, the future Polish "as" submarine warfare. Routine task ORP "Jastrząb"(P-551) (ex-USS S-25 (SS-130)) in April 1942. Received the first combat task: he had to participate in the shield convoy PQ-15 coming from Reykjavik to Murmansk. The convoy consisted of 25 and 14 naval vessels direct cover. As a team far covers work two British heavy cruisers, and was even ready to support in the form of heavy ships of the British Home Fleet and interacting with her American squadron. "Jastrząb" was a group of 4 Allied submarines, whose main task was to alert the allied units of output in the sea of German heavy ships based in the Norwegian fjords, including superbattleship "Tirpitz". Sector Polish podwodniaków patrol was located about 200 miles south-west of Tromsø. This on the Beaufort scale Polish unit went out to sea on 25 April. The transition to a designated position held in very difficult conditions, with stormy weather and snow. In the sector of patrolling the weather conditions were still very heavy. "Jastrząb" began to harass, one after the other, numerous failure mechanisms ship. It has been damaged, among others, Left bow rudder, which she had problems with maintaining the proper depth. In this situation, the commander called on council officers. The crucial point was the question whether the current situation continue to patrol? The state of the ship qualify him to interrupt the action and return to base, but the officers were in favor of staying in the sector. Ultimately, the "Jastrząb" Decision commander, remained in position. Crews did not leave, but bad luck. On the fifth day cruise waves broke part of the deck and to avoid further damage to the Polish unit had to go deeper. On the other hand through it was not possible to carry out observation and Capt. Romanowski decided that "Hawk" every half hour will go out to periscope depth, so that you can check surface of the sea. In such conditions, on May 2 about 14.00 Polish hydroakustycy wychwycili sound of bolts of a submarine coming to the surface. After leaving at periscope depth Cpt. Romanowski seen in the eyepiece of the periscope German U-boat located just 400 meters from the ORP "Jastrząb"! Tactical situation was convenient to fire torpedoes, especially the Poles were not detected by the enemy unit. Before, however, prepared to shoot apparatus torpedo, "Jastrząb" - due to the malfunction of that bow thruster - suddenly, abruptly plunged into greater depth. Once again reached periscope depth after the U-boat, unfortunately, there was no sign. No one wants to end up like "Titanic" Meanwhile, the disastrous weather conditions also gave the characters the convoy ships. On his route began to appear more and more floating ice. The collision with the iceberg in conditions of limited visibility became very real, and to prevent corrected route of the convoy, pushing it further south. Twist of fate, it passes now by sectors surveillance Allied units. To make matters worse, leaders escorts were not informed about the possibility of meeting with their submarines. Therefore, each detected unit was treated as an enemy U-boat. May 2 about 19.40 hours hydroakustycy "Jastrząb" has once again picked up the sound of of marine propellers. After leaving at periscope depth Cpt. Romanowski in glasses periscope he saw two ships, which he recognized as an old destroyer and a minesweeper British. "Jastrząb" suddenly came back to a greater depth, and when again faced the periscope depth hydroakustycy heard a distinctive sonar "ping", or the sound of sound waves bouncing off the hull. This meant that the Poles they've been picked by ships on the surface, and for a moment could fall depth charges! Our sailors had two options. They could run a greater depth and there to wait out the attack, or emerge into and give their identification marks. Because they were allied units, Cpt. Romanowski has decided to launch a yellow candle smoke, which was the agreed signal. At this point, the destroyer headed for the attack and threw a series of depth charges. Polish ship then accelerated and began to descend at a greater depth. In the meantime, they fired another candle smoke. The answer to this was the second series of bombs. The destroyer began to recede, and proceeded to attack minesweeper. Fortunately, the bombs and the Poles managed to maneuver and there will be no direct hit. Fratricidal fire Despite all the damage close explosions were large. On the "Jastrząb" the lights went out, stood two engines, with cracked batteries evolved choking, poisonous chlorine worse hull began to leak. Romanowski ordered therefore emerge ship. "Jastrząb" came to the surface between minesweepers and a destroyer, both Allied escorts opened to him, rapid fire with antiaircraft guns and machine guns. The first bridge on the Polish ship jumped English signaller Thomas Beard, Aldis to provide identification marks. It ended tragically for him. He died on the spot killed a series of machine gun. A little more luck had Cpt. Boleslaw Romanowski, who came on as a second bridge. In his case, I ended up shot in the leg. At some point, seeing that it intends rammed the destroyer Polish unit commander ordered to open all the hatches and get out on deck the whole crew. Serving on a "Jastrząb" British radio operator Martin Dowd began broadcasting distinguishing the Polish ship in the direction of minesweeper. This immediately stopped shooting. Meanwhile, the destroyer set at a distance of about 50 meters from the Polish unit and again opened fire. On the platform "Jastrząb" was in this time many sailors, started a real massacre of Polish crew. Capt. Romanowski raised above his head stained with the blood of the Polish flag. The destroyer broke the fire. From the bridge came the question: - Are you German !? Polish captain replied: - We are Polish submarine „Jastrząb” can’t you see „P-551”- bloody fool !!? "Hunter" Polish ship turned out to be the Norwegian destroyer "St. Albans' and the British minesweeper HMS 'Seagull'. They immediately joined the rescue, evacuating the crew ORP "Jastrząb" on their decks. Polish ship was so badly damaged close explosions depth charges and artillery fire that practically there was no help for him, slowly sinking. It was finally sunk artillery fire minesweeper. Losses among the crew "Jastrząb" were serious: on-site killed three Poles and two Britons, the wound ended up with the addition of four officers, including the commander, and 12 sailors. Unfortunate coincidence British Admiralty set up a special committee to explain the causes of this incident. The verdict, which released was truly Solomonic. It was agreed that the Polish ship sank as a result of a mishap, which consisted of poor technical condition of the ship and the appalling weather conditions that prevent determining the actual position of "Jastrząb". She came to this change of course by the convoy, which was not notified Polish commander. The result was an attack on the Polish unit as justified. The Commission highly appreciated the attitude of captain. Romanowski and crew, as well as she pointed out that misunderstanding by the Allied officers distinguishing marks in the form of yellow flares, which could have prevented the tragedy. In exchange for the lost "Jastrząb" Polish Navy received another submarine. This time it was a modern unit, twin famous already, "Sokół." The new ship was named ORP "Dzik", its first commander was Captain Boleslaw Romanowski, a core crew were sailors from the sunken ORP "Jastrząb". However, life slain pointless podwodniakom is not restored.
  12. Polish military salute - Two-finger salute It is one of the most recognizable and iconic, and performed only by the Polish armed forces. Salut who drove to confusion during World War II. There are many hypotheses about the origins of Polish salute. It is generally accepted that the salute appeared likely before or during the Napoleonic wars or during the November Uprising. A prototype of the adjutant was one of the commanders of shrapnel hit among in hand - in which he had only two fingers - index and middle. this soldier after reaching their commander, saluted bleeding hand with two fingers gave important information to win the battle, and a moment later he died. To commemorate this event commander introduced the custom of saluting in such a way. Genesis Polish way of saluting with two fingers, as he writes, among others, L. Ratajczyk in the book "Historical pedigree Polish ceremonial" is not fully explained and largely based on assumptions that are only partially reflected in the historical sources and how the author writes: "Until the XVII-XIX century there was in this respect in the Polish Army high freedom. Initially they saluted by removing the cap or hat military, as well as the bow of the head. During the period of the Four in 1790 they introduced salute without a gun with his left hand by applying the hand with fingers extended to his forehead above his left eye. In the Legions and the Duchy of Warsaw adopted a way of saluting adopted in the French army, ie. The entire right hand open the other hand, the officers who are in hats, if not lined up, took off their hats". Another hypothesis about the origins of saluting with two fingers slipped historian Janusz Przymanowski, which says: "Origin saluting with two fingers in the Polish Army is associated with the Polish theater, with a patriotic drama Stanislaw Wyspiański Fri. "Warszawianka", and specifically with the figure of the Old Wiarusa. The same saluting Wiarusa Wyspianski repeatedly sketched on a drawing made in 1904. Presented the board putting it to the brim hats two fingers. This way of saluting with two fingers at the peak, one of which meant honor, and another homeland - adopted by Przymanowskiego with theater scene, has been approved in writing the regulations Rifle Association published in 1911 in Krakow effort, "Life." This patriotic and democratic salute was to be introduced at the time as a sign of protest against salutowaniu whole hand in foreign military formations, when Poland did not used to exist on the maps". In the army the Second Polish Republic from 1918 was put on permanent habit of saluting with two fingers of his right hand. This way of saluting during the Second World War preserved in partisan units and in the Polish Army molded by the London government in exile. However, during World War II, a way of saluting pose problems of Polish soldiers during the contact with the Allies, as the Allied officers, who did not know this type of saluting, mistakenly believed that Polish soldiers do not respect their degrees, or are drunk that often ended with this arrest until pending investigation. As a result, an order was issued to Allied officers salute the full hand.
  13. It's nice to know something new about the Regia Marina
  14. ORP Błyskawica the most famous Polish destroyer and ORP Orzeł most modern submarine beginning of the Second World War.
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